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Jakub

How mopar flathead 6 was immortalized in eastern Europe

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Hello comrades;

I decided to write down this story, as may it be not known in US, but when production of Chrysler 6 ended? And what was the last car using it?

You'd probably say, that in 70s and it was used in trucks. That's truth, but not all the truth.

To understand it well, we have to go back to Soviet Union to early 40s. As You may know, in GAZ (Gorkovskij Avtomobilnyj Zavod- Car Factory in Gorki) at this time GAZ A and GAZ M1 were produced, first one being license of Ford A, second- 1934 Ford with Ford A engine. As it became outdated by early 40s, they decided to design new car, but well, after 22 June, 1941 they had more important problems, such as "how to make paint on tanks dry faster".

As the situation on front get better, in 1943 idea of a new car came back. They copied front suspension from Opel Kapitan (GM), took some minor parts from Ford, copied Chrysler's engine, but changing all diameters from imperial to metrical system, so most parts, such as pistons and bushing are not interchangeable. All these parts were put in modern uni-body and that's how GAZ M20 Pobeda (Victory) was born. Car was shown to Stalin, he was quite satisfied, but, well...

"... 6 cylinder? Passenger cars should be more economical, fuel is more needed for the army!"

As arguing with uncle Jossif would probably end with government-sponsored 15 year vacation in luxury resort in Kolyma, with such attractions as a uranium mine or cutting down forest, engineers decided to cut engine and change it into 4 cylinder one. That's how GAZ M-20 engine emerged.

Production of GAZ M-20 started in 1945.

GAZ-M20-1.jpg

Of course, 6 was also produced, but it was used in trucks (GAZ 51), army vehicles and special Pobiedas, made exclusively for KGB.

In late 40s/early 50s, license for Pobeda was given as a Stalin's present for Poland. Production started in 1951 in FSO in Warsaw (Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych, Factory of Passenger Cars- so romantic name!). Car was named "FSO M20 Warszawa"

Production of Pobeda ended in 1958, of Warszawa- in 1973. Engine was also used in GAZ 69, something in kind of Soviet Jeep.

But...

In late 50s, in FSC (Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych, Factory of Trucks) in Lublin and ZSD (Zakład Samochodów Dostawczych; Facility of Delivery Cars) in Nysa, Poland, using all mechanics of M20 Warszawa two delivery cars were built.

Żuk (Beetle)
zuk_a03_01.jpg

and Nysa

c1474-p.jpg

But, that's not the end of a story...

In middle 60s FSO found out, that 45 HP flathead 4 with fuel consumption around 14 L/100 km is not a modern powertrain. Money were on shortage, so instead of developing new engine, old flathead was re-designed, and became... OHV. "Down" of the engine, pistons, crankshaft, oiling system etc. was untouched, "Top" was new. And... S-21 engine emerged.

Also, a 40s fastback wasn't the most modern body style in early 60s(well... they could wait 5 years, it would be fashionable again) and the funds was as always, on shortage, the biggest change in Warszawa production run occured- it became a sedan, called 223 (with S-21 engine) and 224 (with flathead)

195797_1273582135455_o.jpg

Production of that car without any major changes ended in 1973.

But, production of deliveries not. Nysa got new body in late 60s, Żuk got face-lifting in early 70s. After end of production of Warszawa, Żuk and Nysa started using OHV. Production of Nysa ended in 1994, of Żuk- in 1997, but in 1993 it (FINALLY!) got diesel, and the story of Chrysler flathead 6, which became OHV 4, ended.

1.jpg

Joke.

In 1958, in Only True Korea GAZ 51 was copied... and it's still in production, with good old Flathead 6. And it was face-lifted recently! (in 2008... 10 years ago... let's say that it was recently)

02-Sungri-58KA.jpg

So, always when You see old Mopar flathead 6, remember about his 4-cylinder little brother in Poland which carries vegetables to the market or about big brother in North Korea, which caries... probably army. Is it anything else in North Korea?

 

PS. You'll probably found out, that I'm not an English-speaker, so it would be great if someone correct or re-write this article.

PS2: If You ever wondered, what was the first SUV, it's not Jeep Wagoneer.

It's GAZ M-72.

gaz_m72_01.jpg

Edited by Jakub

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Interesting...Thanks for posting.

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Thanks for sharing this info. Truly interesting. That last car...GAZ?

from the windshield forward looks a lot like a 50 Plymouth plopped

on a 4 wheel drive frame, don't you think? 

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Maybe it's simillar, but that's the body of GAZ M-20 Pobieda after first face- lifting, mounted on special frame and using mechanics of GAZ 69.

Russian also made another, compact passenger 4x4 (first crossover ever?) - Moskwicz (Moskvitsch) 410.

2847425669_bf7c74d59f.jpg

 

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So, will the OHV heads fit the 23" block or the 25" block? :unsure:   Just in case I find some at a swap meet.:eek:

On a more serious note, thanks to Jakup for this historical info, and your English is just fine. No need to re-write any of it.

 

Edited by BobK

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None of them; OHV were only 4 cylinders, with displacement of 2120 cm3. Not only head was new- the block was also changed, so it isn't simply flathead 4 with OHV head. Later models (only soviet ones), used in GAZ 69 were bored to something around 2400 cm3 (I'm not sure, but probably 2430)

Here's GAZ/FSO M20 engine:

021.jpg

 

And here- FSO S-21, OHV. Later ones used FIAT's 125p carb.
silnik3-1024x682.jpg

silnik5-1024x682.jpg

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I guess the other side of this coin was that Chrysler of France was the last manufacturer of Ford's flathead v8.  When they purchased Simca, they continued to build the 60hp version of the 2.9 litre engine.  Subsequently they developed and fitted overhead valve heads for a sport model of the Verdette convertible that boosted HP to 80. Production continued till 61 or 62.

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Jakub,    Your English is just fine.  No changes are needed.

  Thank you for a most interesting story about Our Favorite Flathead.

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Very Interesting. Even the transmission looks MoPar,

Forget all these projects swapping a 230 with 250.

Now who'll be the first to merge two OHV 4 heads into a OHV 6 ? :D

 

Edited by chrysler1941

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Jakubs English is better than my Polish....In response to Bobk post... Remember when Pontiac back in the 1960s or 70s had the straight six overhead cam motor they touted as a six that went around acting like a V-8 ?  It also had a four barrel and I think used ethel gas.  Wonder how that would be in an old P-15 swap.

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In Victoria BC back in the early 60s there was a 48 Plymouth coupe with an overhead conversion made upin the local  shipyards.  It was made of plates of steel machined then fitted together.  On first glance under the hood, it looked like a chev six because the rockers and top cover may have been GM  components.  I wish I had asked more intelligent questions at the time. A friend tracked this fellow down many years later and he said that they made two of them since the first one did not cool well.  I wish I knew more.

Around my place we insist " Real men don't need overhead valves"   Thanks Jakub for a most interesting history.

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47 minutes ago, dpollo said:

In Victoria BC back in the early 60s there was a 48 Plymouth coupe with an overhead conversion made upin the local  shipyards.  It was made of plates of steel machined then fitted together.  On first glance under the hood, it looked like a chev six because the rockers and top cover may have been GM  components.  I wish I had asked more intelligent questions at the time. A friend tracked this fellow down many years later and he said that they made two of them since the first one did not cool well.  I wish I knew more.

Around my place we insist " Real men don't need overhead valves"   Thanks Jakub for a most interesting history.

Well I agree, and if I did need toploaded valves, would buy a Slant 6 not a stovebolt 6........LOL

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Speaking of overhead valves on a mopar flat 6....... I believe after ww2, Chrysler installed hemi heads on the flat six, but with the V-8 craze taking off, they canned the idea of hemi heads on the 6 and put them on the new V-8 's instead. I have seen pictures in a book, or maybe on the internet, of a hemi headed "flat" six factory built prototype.

Can anyone attest to this?

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Yes, you are indeed correct.  About 1946 two conversions were built as prototypes. One had a gear driven dual overhead cam setup  They found that this conversion  put out more horsepower than the straight eight.  They also built a flathead V  8 at this time which looked like the Ford except the  exhaust was along the top like the Cadillac.   In his book   Chrysler Engines 1922-1998 Willard L Weertman gives the details of  these  in chapter 8.

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Thank you for sharing! The read was fascinating. And now, even though I have trouble remembering someone's name minutes after shaking their hand, I'll likely carry this information with me forever.

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14 hours ago, BobK said:

Speaking of overhead valves on a mopar flat 6....... I believe after ww2, Chrysler installed hemi heads on the flat six, but with the V-8 craze taking off, they canned the idea of hemi heads on the 6 and put them on the new V-8 's instead. I have seen pictures in a book, or maybe on the internet, of a hemi headed "flat" six factory built prototype.

Can anyone attest to this?

Was there any correlation of this project to austrailia's mopar inline 6 hemi? Beyond the number of cylinders and the hemi head of course.

Edited by rcb

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Cool story Jakub!  Nice to find you in here as well as on facebook. 

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